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Greek/Roman Mythology





Greek/Roman Mythology

Parallelisms Between Greek and Roman Mythology Greek and Roman mythology have many similarities between them. Each type has there own set of Gods and Goddesses, although they were worshiped for similar reasons. The following will explain each God or Goddess and explain how they compare to each other. The King of Gods in Greek Mythology is known as Zeus. Zeus was the ruler of the sky, and had the power to create thunderstorms and lightning as well as earthquakes. He was the child of Cronus and Rhea. As the story goes he was their sixth child, and the father to protect him from being overthrown had eaten the five previous children. Zeus was taken to a city called Crete and hidden from his father. As Zeus grew older and learned of what happened he found a potion to make his father regurgitate the other children. Once this happened they all teamed up and killed their father. Zeus then became the ruler of Mount Olympus, and head of the new line of Gods. Jupiter was the predominant power holder of Roman Gods. He was ruler of the sky, the daylight, all the weather, and even the thunder and lightening. Jupiter helped drive back the Sabines. His temple was built in the Capitol, and newly elected counsels offered their first prayers to him. Hera was the wife and sister of Zeus, and the High Goddess of the Greeks. She was extremely jealous of the affairs that her husband was having and often tormented or harmed the mistresses he was fooling around with. Although, when she went too far, or tried to cause death, Zeus would intervene and stop her. Hera tried to ship wreak Heracles on his return from Troy, and with that Zeus had her hung by the wrists from top of the mountain with an anvil tied to each ankle. The two had four children together. Juno, Hera’s counterpart, was the wife of Jupiter. Juno was the protector of women, especially those who are married. Women often gave offerings to Juno to help with their childbirth. The God of the Underworld, Hades, was the brother of Zeus. He gained Hell, as his share in conquering their father. He is most known for kidnapping his wife, Persephone, while she was picking flowers in a field. As the story goes, Hades had her eat a piece of food in the Underworld, therefore she could not live on the Earth again.



 Her father, Zeus, made arrangements for her to be allowed on Earth for two-thirds of the year and in the Underworld as Hade’s wife for the rest of the time. This is used as the cause of spring and winter. When she returns to the surface she brings spring with her and when she returns to the Underworld she leaves winter behind her. Pluto, the Roman God of the Underworld, who’s name also means rich. It reflects the rich mineral resources beneath the ground and the rich resources above the earth. In art he is shown with the Horn of Plenty. This horn is most likely why we associate the Devil, or Satan, as having a horn on top of his head. His name was thought of to be bad luck, and therefore was hardly mentioned in myths. Ares was the child of Zeus and Hera. He was the God of War. Whenever he was seen or portrayed he would be fully armed and ready for battle. Any cause to fight or go to war would bring him out and about. He was the discomfited lover of Aphrodite.


Almost all of his children by mortal women were of a violent nature. Mars, The Roman God of War and Agriculture, was the second most important god after Jupiter. The month March was named after Mars, and was also the first month of the Roman calendar. March was the month when agriculture was reborn and when most people engaged in war. Mars was given his own priest and altar in Rome. The wolf and woodpecker were the sacred animals of Mars. A festival in October was held in his honor and all farmers and soldiers would lay aside their weapons and had a celebration. The Greek Goddess of Love and Beauty was Aphrodite. She was married to the Smith God, Hephaestus, but left him for the God of War. She favored the Trojans during the Trojan War. She was known to have angry mood swings and all the gods and mortals paid dearly for it. Aphrodite and Venus were counterparts in mythology. Venus, The Roman Goddess of Love, was first worshiped in pre-Roman Italy, where she was worshiped for gardens and vegetation. Festivals during the month of April were in recognition of Venus. Her son, Cupid, was told to fire individuals with love by the touch of his arrow. Her plans backfired and an arrow accidentally touched her. She fell in love with Adonis, the first man she saw, and instantly had a passion to be with him. She was so anxious to be with him that she tried to persuade him not to hunt any longer, but he did and got killed by a boar.





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